Embroidery Applications

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This is a catch-all place for how embroidery was used in our focus areas of history. Useful links:

Embroidery on Clothing

General useful links

BCE

Do we have evidence of Greek, Roman, Old Testament, or Coptic embroidery?

1AD - 500AD

500AD - 1000AD

  • Llangorse Textile ; possibly embroidered, probably woven  ; Welsh ; Pattern and Purpose in Insular Art (book)
  • Mammen Cloak ; wool embroidery ; Scandinavian ; late 900s; http://heatherrosejones.com/mammen/index.html
  • Oseberg Textiles; most are patterned fabrics, with three embroidery fragments done in stem stitch and variations; http://www.forest.gen.nz/Medieval/articles/Oseberg/textiles/TEXTILE.HTM
  • Vestments: Copes, Stoles, Chausables, and other ecclesiastical garments ; Opus Anglicanum and variations thereof; usually English ;
  • Royal Clothing
    • Queen Arnegunde sleeve cuff; 6th c.; French; Reference on Historical Needlework Resources site but link is broken
    • Queen Bathilde shirt; 7th c. ; French; Reference on Historical Needlework Resources site but link is broken
    • Charlemagne's Coronation Clothing ; technique? ; French ; around the web

1000 - 1100

1100 - 1200

  • Vestments: Copes, Stoles, Chausables, and other ecclesiastical garments ; Opus Anglicanum and variations thereof; usually English ;
    • Stole with Images of the Martyrdom of Saint Catherine, ca. 1200, German (Rhineland) or English, Red silk, linen underlay, crimson silk tabby, metal threads (strips of gold and silver leaf wrapped on linen thread) (Met 64.101.1382) Source: Embroidery from Europe | Subject Index | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    • more images of and links to vestments at the Historical Needlework Resources site. Most of the linked-to info is not in English, so did not determine the embroidery technique. Much of it appears to be Opus Anglicanum.
  • Everyday clothing
    • women's dresses, mens vests, and infants dresses in the 'Asi-L-Hadat find in Lebanon, dated to 1283. Dresses are embroidered solidly on the sleeves and chest panels, Vests are embroidered rather solidly throughout. Some pieces, particularly the infants dresses, are comprised of embroidery from several different pieces, reassembled to make the garments. The work is cross-stitch (regular, not long-armed--although offhand I believe long-armed has been documented to this region), other counted thread stitches (yet to be determined) and pattern darning. The French archeological report was not as forthcoming as it could have been in terms of stitch definition. Work done on cotton groundcloth with silk threads.

Remembering the embroidery in the Middle East was not preserved as it was in Europe and examining the amount of embroidery on these garments, it can easily be assumed embroidered garments existed prior to this time. However, this is the earliest find of its kind in this region.

Mummies du Liban: Rapport preliminaire sur la decouverte archeologique de ' Asi L Hada (Xlle siecle). Groupe D-Etudes et de Recherches Souterraines du Liban. France: Edifra, 1993.

1200 - 1300

  • Vestments: Copes, Stoles, Chausables, and other ecclesiastical garments ; Opus Anglicanum and variations thereof; usually English ;
    • The Clare Chasuble, embroidered in England ; it was made at some time during the marriage of Margaret de Clare and Edmund Plantaganet, Duke of Cornwall. Before being cut down, it is said to have included the coats of arms of Clare, Cornwall, Lacy and England. These stand for Margaret de Clare who married Edmund Plantaganet in 1272. Underside couching, split stitch and laid and couched work. They were divorced in 1294. (V&A 673-1864)

1300 - 1400

  • Vestments: Copes, Stoles, Chausables, and other ecclesiastical garments ; Opus Anglicanum and variations thereof; usually English ;
    • Chasuble, ca. 1330–1350, English, Silk and silver-gilt thread and colored silks in underside couching, split stitch, laid-and-couched work, and raised work, with pearls on velvet (Met 27.162.1) Source: Embroidery from Europe | Subject Index | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

1400 - 1500

1500 - 1600

  • coifs, dresses, smocks, ruffs, etc. ; blackwork, raisedwork, cutwork; Elizabethan England ; info all over the Web
  • lace for edging shirts ; lace; Venice ; info all over the Web

post 1600

Embroidery on Furnishings

BCE

1AD - 500AD

500AD - 1000AD

1000 - 1100

1100 - 1200

1200 - 1300

  • Altar Frontals:
    • The Flagellation, mid-14th century, Italian; Made in Florence, Silk and metallic threads on linen (Met 64.27.18) Source: Embroidery from Europe | Subject Index | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    • Altar Frontal, late 14th century, German, Silk on linen (Met 69.106), but text says worked in wool. Source: Embroidery from Europe | Subject Index | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    • Altarcloth (detail), second half of 14th century, German; From the convent of Altenberg, Linen embroidered with satin, chain, chevron, and Romanian stitches (Met 29.87) Source: Embroidery from Europe | Subject Index | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

1300 - 1400

  • Tristan Quilts ; Quilting ; wall hanging or bed covering

1400 - 1500

1500 - 1600

  • Pillow Cushions ; Elizabethan England ; info all over the Web
  • Bed Hangings ; Elizabethan England ; info all over the Web

post 1600